Pimp My Ride – Lithium Cuda DPV

MISSION: Replace my dead Cuda 400 Nimh battery with a lithium solution, offering greater range and increased power.

Like many projects, this one turned out to be more work than I thought. In the end though, I’ve turned my Cuda into an 800 monster that rides smooth and hard.

The Battery

My initial attempts to purchase one of the commercially available lithium solutions all proved to be a dead ends when it came to shipping to Australia. Establishing the battery specifications was pretty straight forward, and a 12S 43.2V(12 x 3.6v) solution seems an almost perfect match for the Cuda control system in terms of max and min voltage. I also felt no need to max out the lithium content, as 830whr will give me adequate range and was a relatively simply build for the battery guys. Getting it shipped to Australia, well that’s another. Eventually I got the following pack landed in Oz for US$815 from a Chinese supplier who I’ve used with very good results in the past.

Voltage: 43.2V (50.4V fully charged) – 12S6P
Capacity: 19.2Ah / ~830whr
Cells: Panasonic NCR18650BD (10A rated)
Chemistry: Lithium ion
Protection: Balancing BMS – 45A continuous rated
Dimensions: 140x120x150mm

Dimension 800 Pack

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Installation

Installing the pack required modification to the battery case lid; shaving 2.7 mm off the inside as the lengthwise fit is tight. In the end I got the battery in the nose, sealed as per stock battery. Charging can be done in situ via draw lead, so no need to remove for charging so a big advantage over the stock solution.

The lithium is lighter, so needed about 2kg of lead in the nose. Needs some minor tweaks, but trim is no issue with Delrin x-prop. There is a bit of lead shot in the tail still, but I’m not sure whether this would be enough to trim out a metal x-prop level…Not shown in the picture below, there is a 6mm alloy plate bolted to the casing lid, I think milled out a recess and positioning plates to hold the battery it. A cam strap and good old bungee stops it moving. Weights just cabled tied in, but it’s pretty solid. I’ts a little hacky, but it’ll rarely come out of the nose so I wasn’t fussed about creating a pretty case.

Controller_Cover      battery_install

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Electronics

My first dive didn’t go so well…it was like stalling a race car on the front row of the grid. I quickly found out the older Cuda electronics (ESC – side mounted one) does not seem to handle the higher power possible with the new pack. The voltage range is ok, but the higher voltage means higher current and the old controller seems to freak out (stuttered running, loss of power) at speeds 4+. I tested this on another Cuda 400 with the old electronics and it failed in a different way, simply cutting off at speeds 5+.

After discussions with the factory I decided to upgrade to the new programmable Cuda electronics. On paper the advantage is that they’re programmable, but they’re obviously cable of more power throughput. Once installed this bad boy did the trick.

The factory supplied parts leaves the controller exposed on top of the motor guard plate – I didn’t like this. To provide added protection, I used the old motor guard as an electronics guard, and just simply stacked another level on. The upper level Delrin post extensions are 25mm long, and M5x60mm socket head bolts did the trick nicely to clamp it in.

The Experience

It’s early days, but so far it runs like a mean machine. Seems notably smoother and has more thrust than previous Cudas I’ve used with the old electronics (anecdotal observation). My Cuda used to have a very minor slippy/stutter/shaky nature at high speeds with the 400 Nimh and old controller – though now it’s gone and runs on max extremely smoothly. I’ve not changed the default programmed setting on the controller, so the 400 Nimh will just drop in without a problem.

The Costs

Battery: US$815 inc charger (landed in Oz)
Battery Lid: ~$150 or use old one (requires lathe to modify)
Newer Electronics: US$465 (assuming Cuda has old electronics)

The Data

An Eagle Tree data log of one dive can be found here. I’ll post a full burn down data log file once I get time.

EagleTree

New Wreck Found Off Sydney – Andreas’ Wreck

Thanks to the tireless detective work of Scott Willan, we were fortunate enough to find and dive a new wreck off Sydney heads over the long weekend. The wreck, as yet to be identified is a small vessel that we guess is about 40m in length, now sitting in 72m of water. The hull is largely intact however the absence a boiler or engine strongly suggest the wreck to be scuttled.

Our initial dive was only 37min on the bottom, so we’ve more questions than answers at this stage. Conditions on the day weren’t the best, with limited vis and poor lighting. We did find small glass and porcelain artifacts, as well as coal on the site. Future dives to the site will allow us to measure the length accurately and hopefully use historical records to identify the wreck.

The site was reported to NSW Herritage this morning, and is located at 33 50.828’S 151 21.103’E (WGS 84 DD MM.mmm).

As we dived the wreck on the anniversary of our good friend’s death, and in lieu of a name we’re referring to the site as Andrea’s Wreck. RIP mate! Thanks to the whole team, Scott Willan &  Dave Wood (divers) and Geoff Cook and Victoria Parr as excellent boat crew.

A story has also now been published in the Telegraph.

Nautilus Lifeline – Flood Protection

Flooding a camera, or any electronic equipment on a dive sucks (I’ve not better way to put that). Sadly I flooded my Nautilus Lifeline (NL) on a deep dive a while back, which appears to be caused by the latch being popped open underwater.

I’ve taken to a more risk managed approach with my replacement, as I saw this done on the MV Spoilsport units. One modification is to use a loop of bungee (shock cord) around the body of the unit. It prevents the latch being opened accidentally, and therefore saves a flood. Simple, but effective…

 

Mike Ball Shark Shooter 2014

“ERROR: CARD FULL!” Usually that’s the last thing you want to see on your camera underwater, but after 90 minutes shooting sharks it meant my camera was full of images. My card was full because I’d gone wild on the trigger, but it wasn’t my fault. Sharks just kept coming, and by that I mean kept coming closer.

The scene was set as the previous day we’d had one of the best shark feeds that I can recall at North Horn. Sharks were wall to wall, almost too many to count. Today though, was a day of attractions; we wouldn’t feed the sharks but simply attract them close with tuna heads in a metal cage. The calmer environment highlights the more natural behavior of the animal and provides a better shooting opportunity in my opinion.

Dive 1 – Admiralty Anchor, a nice sheltered reef system with great coral, sheer walls and undulating topology.DSP_7533 Don’t be fooled though, the site is one of Osprey’s best and as we’d later find out can turn on some mega shark action. The morning was all about whitetip reef sharks – close and calm.

Dive 2 – We’re at natural shark cleaning station on North Horn, which was also the site of the shark feed the previous day. Our mere presence draws attention and as we splash into the gin clean water, 20-30 sharks are buzzing around under the boat. In goes my friend “Mr Tuna Head”, now we’re talking 30-40 sharks and the tension mounts. We now had sharks galore, close range encounters and near perfect shooting conditions in terms of shark engagement, water clarity and gorgeous blue mid-morning light.

DSP_6883With our trusty minder Nick watching our backs and keeping safety in check, we had prime position on a coral bommie (mound) that offers 360 degree shooting as sharks circles and approach. For me the key thing is the calm nature of the animals, as opposed to the feed which is impressive, but differs significantly from a shooting perspective. Ultimately today we had time, opportunity and all came out shots with shots we were proud of.

Dive 3 – Another attraction, though the current was flowing into the lagoon at a fairly strong rate. We staked out our prize tuna and waited. What we got this time was the smaller sharks from inside the lagoon, juvenille grey reefs (30-50cm) that seeming don’t know their place in the world. At times erratic, they’re cool too see and eventually make way for bigger sharks to come past. More white tips joined us until we had to go.

Dive 4 – I’d just got out of the water and was told “there’s one tuna head left, we’re doing back to Admiralty Anchor”, which of DSP_7637course always brings a smile to my face. In we went and it didn’t take too long before a 3.5m silvertip made itself known as we poked at this tuna head. Soon enough there were two, then three, and ultimately five silvertips circling the area. An impressive sight anywhere in the world, these animals have a grace that’s hard to describe. Unfortunately with daylight fading it proved challenging to capture them well, but what an exciting dive I had!

At the end of the day I said that it was one of the best days diving I’d done in nearly 20 years. I’d shot over 1600 pictures, had some photos in my camera that were great, and more importantly had a smile on my face from ear to ear. The challenge has been set – a tuna head on every dive for next year’s 2015 Shark Shooter workshop…

More images available here.

New Wreck Found – ex-HMAS Pioneer

The unmistakable sight of a rudder and stern was the first glimpse we got of a vessel that has been forgotten for some 83 years. From our initial landing spot, we moved up through the twisted metal, coiled cabling, beams, plating, and on it went until we hit the pointed bow of the once 93m long ship. The signs were all there at that the ship had been scuttled, but who could blame me for a quick look for a bell around the bow.HMAS_Pioneer_by_Allan_Green_SLV_H91.325_2122

Sitting in 67m, the dirty conditions made for a rather dark dive on the day. The 45 minutes we spent on the bottom gave us reasonable time to cover the length of the wreck and capture stills and video for identification purposes.

It took a team of maritime research boffins a week, and us another dive on the site to say with reasonable certainty that shipwreck is that of ex-HMAS Pioneer. A light cruiser originally built for the Royal Naval as HMS Pioneer, she entered the Royal Australian Navy in 1912, was stripped down and sold off by 1926, and finally scuttle outside Sydney Heads in 1931.

Identifying the shipwreck was an interesting affair. The very pointed bow and design of the propeller struts suggest strongly that the vessel had Navy origins. This reconciles with the fact that many ex-Navy vessels were scuttled off photo 4Sydney in the earlier part of last century. As usual, there seems to be a fair bit of Internet chatter about the find, petty squabbling by parties unrelated to the project, and some discussion about what the vessel might actually be.

Initially we suspected the vessel could be ex-HAMS Vendetta or ex-HMAS Pioneer, however an initial review of the images from the dive had led us to discount these two vessels due to the shape of the bow and position of the hawespipe. Subsequent dives on the wreck caused us to back track and ultimately we believe that she is indeed Pioneer. The bow appears to have been cut down one or more decks (presumably to salvage material), changing the appearance of the boat significantly. Also the rudder and keel design did not reconcile to the Pelorus-class arrangement plans that we had, however we eventually found dry dock images of Pioneer that reconcile we what we see underwater.

photo 5The size and direction of the shipwreck should provide an easy target to either shot or anchor on. The bow is facing south-east, with the stern towards the north-west. Bottom composition is mostly sad with some rock, so it is conceivable to snag a rock and not be on the wreck. My preference would be drop a shot mid ship (33 51.850’S 151 19.844’E  – WGS 84 DD MM.mmm) and excursion from there depending on what you want to see.

Many thanks to Scott Willan for finding the shipwreck to begin with, and the team David Wood, Max Gleason and Geoff Cook (skipper).

 

 

 

Shot Line Calculations

We often shot wrecks or potential target in order to better manage in-water and surface operations on decompression dives. I put a few calculation matrices together to aid in shot usage (and anchoring for that matter), so thought I’d share them.

  • Distance to Target – given a fixed depth and shot line length, the matrix provides the distance to original drop target from the current buoy position. Use this in conjunction with a GPS to determine if the shot is on target. Given the short some time to settle in, then position boat next to buoy; if you’re any further away from the original target on the GPS than the distance in the matrix the shot is off target.
  • Shot Line Angle – provides the natural angle of the shot line off the bottom for various lengths and depths. Use this to determine how long a shot line you need/want. Optimum angle is subjective, but I prefer the steepest descent angle possible. I like 60-70 degrees in current to help the shot/anchor grab, but this is all relatively to chain length, line diameter, surface float shape/size, etc…

Click here to download the file.

 Assumptions: 

  • Adequate wind/current is present to allow the buoy to pull back completely.
  • The shot line is linear, not bowed by shearing current, deco stations, etc…
  • The shot weight/anchor is on target i.e. It did not get blown off on descent.

Mini Review: Nauticam NA-5D mkIII Deep Test

Descending down a vertical wall in the Coral Sea, I watched the depth exceed the 100m rating provided by Nauticam and thought to myself “I hope the engineers I spoke to really know their stuff!”. Stopping at a 125m (410ft) to observe a deep sea fan, I paid some attention to life support before testing out the functionality of the 5D mkIII housing.  I’m glad to say, there were no leaks, no creaks, and no issues of any kind.

I took the Nauticam NA-5D mkIII housing on a Deep Reef Coral Sea project with Mike Ball Dive Expeditions, for both still and video work. The real question was ‘how deep can the housing go and function properly?’. The absolute depth is still unknown, but I’m happy to say it functions perfectly at 125msw (410ft) and no signs of pressure related issues were observed.

My first impression was that Nauticam have come a long way since I’d last looked at one. Specifically the controls were very impressive, such that the primary underwater controls had been routed to your fingers tips, rather than the easier solution of just putting a hole through the housing to engage a camera button at the closest location. Examples of this advanced ergonomics include the Start/Stop, ISO and Playback buttons, which are all thumb paddles (not small push buttons). The piano keys for Set and Q-Menu were also nice; the latter prompting me to actually use the function which had not been something I’d liked on other housings.

I experienced no issues with stuck buttons, problematic control or knob issues, which are typical problems when housings are taken near or past their rated depth. Nauticam engineers said their 100m rating was based on what they could functionally test with their vacuum machine, rather than what the housing could actually handle. As such, I took up the challenge of actually testing it in the field at that depth. I should also mention that I tested the 8.5” acrylic dome, not the glass one, which the engineers weren’t as confident with past the 100m rating.

The shutter release, shutter speed, aperture and zoom control all worked as advertised – and actually were very responsive with positive feedback. I had no issues with the housing after a week of deep diving, with most dives in the 70-80m range. The grips seem to have evolved a fair bit since I’d last looked at them, with the stainless steel brackets at the top of the grips providing a fair bit of rigidity which was nice.

Assembly of the housing was something that impressed me. The ports and extensions are easy to seat and lock (out of the box – including past the extension to dome), and the markings make it simple for a first time Nauticam user like myself to put together. I will confess to p_278_2having to resort to the manual to understand the port extension locking mechanism, as I assumed this would unlock from the housing side (which it does not), but I was quickly in the water a few minutes minute later.

A nice feature of the Nauticam solution was the Flash Trigger for Canon cameras, which allows optic fibre strobe syncing to be used. On technical dives I often sling my camera or push it through a restriction in a cave  or wreck. Not having to worry about cutting or breaking a wired sync chord is just a nice and something I miss since switching to the 5D MKIII.

Buoyancy Arms

One problem with an SLR setup and very deep diving is the weight of the setup. A heavy rig will increase your breathing rate (particularly shooting video), and at serious depths (e.g. > 90m/300ft), the increased work of breathing (or breathing resistance) on a closed circuit rebreather can be life threatening.

Carbon_Fiber_Arms_1

One solution is to use buoyancy arms, though to date the solutions I’ve seen and used have been sub-optimal. Stix float arms work in shallow depths but compress massively past about 40m – incidentally they return to form when you come back up which is quite interesting for such hard foam.

For a while now, I’ve been testing the Nauticam Carbon Fibre Float Arms in 12” configuration. Also rated to 100m, these had not problems at 125m and have seen repeated dives to depths in excess of 100m over the last few months. Nauticam apparently reinforced the inside with a honeycomb structure in order to ensure no flexing ad depth, which might otherwise crack the carbon fibre and cause leaking.

With the 60x300mm (12”) float arms and 8.5″ dome, I found the Nauticam rig to be far too buoyant. The same arms were perfect on my Aquatica setup (with 8″ dome), but the Nauticam housing is not as negative so the 200mm (9”) arms would suit better I think as I like my rig to be slightly negative rather than positive.

 

Configuration for Deep Dives:

Model: Nauticam NA-5DMKIII

Dome: 8.5” Acrylic Dome Port (18802)

Extension: Extension Ring 70 with 70 (21170)

Lens: Canon 16-35mm f/2.8 II USM

Strobes: 2 x Inon z-240s /w Optic Fibre Sync via Nauticam Flash Trigger

Viewfinder: 180° viewfinder

Focus Light: Fisheye Fix Neo 2000W /w 6” arm

 

Disclaimer: A test housing and peripheral equipment was provided by Nauticam for the purposes of testing and review.

 

New Wreck Dived – MV Limerick

Descending rapidly to 107m, I found myself drifting further from the descent line and thought “I’m might not make this”, until of course the 140m long ship came into view beneath me for the first time in 70 years. With the keel on the upside down hull clearly visible, I thought I’ve finally succeeded after 12 months of planning and several failed attempts months earlier.

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Fairwind’s Missing Crew

Since we discovered the MV Fairwind in 2009, I have been contacted by family members of all the Australian crew members. All have been understandably very happy to finally know what had happened to their brother, father, uncle, etc… Some identified with the Fairwind after the ABC’s 7:30 Report feature, and the others seem to have found my website through the power of the Internet.

I was quite surprised today to get an email from a guy in PNG, who’s great uncle was lost in the Fairwind tragedy. I was surprised as the crew list was published as 5 named Australians and 12 Papua New Guineans. Actually the newspapers of the day highlighted the social attitudes of the 1950’s and stated things like “12 blacks”, “12 niggers” and “several PNG natives”.

For the record, I’d like to add a named person to the crew list of the MV Fairwind:

Mr Cecil Himogo, Crewman, of Seasea Village, Milne Bay, PNG

Wreck or Rock?

Descending at speed on DPVs we pass 90, 100, 110, 120 metres; the pressure squeeze on my drysuit begins to exceed what I consider comfortable levels and the my power inflator, having been designed by an evil person, fails to keep up with the rate of descent. Like an inverted Polaris missile I reach for my wing inflator, which has of course has found its way into a position that requires shoulder dislocation to reach. After levelling out and getting  my first glance of the bottom I thought, “This is a wreck for sure, look at all the plates on the bottom”, though at second glance I was disappointed to see it was actually plate shaped coral.

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